Pottery is impervious to decay, even when submerged in water or soil for thousands of years. That property is essential; without the invention of pottery, civilization and the modern world would not exist.
Pottery is durable stuff. There are civilizations which we know about only from their pottery; everything else they left decomposed, and is lost to history. Even among civilizations about whom we know a fair amount, pottery decoration is often the best record we have of how a people lived, their art, their clothing, their hair, their furniture, their rituals, and even their legends. Pottery also preserves the work of highly influential, but anonymous artists: we know nothing about the famous Andokides painter.
But pottery is more than art and artifact. Without pottery, city and civilization would not exist.
At some point in prehistory, humans began living in fixed locations, which meant that they could feed themselves by farming more, and by hunting-gathering less. But that was only possible if they could feed themselves year-round. For farmers limited by a fixed growing season, that meant that some method of storing food was necessary to survive the winter. Storing food in containers of leather, wood, or fabric leaves it vulnerable to spoiling, insects, rodents, and others. More, organic containers attract their own pests. Stone is an occasional solution, but it is heavy, and very difficult to fashion into useful shapes and sizes.
In contrast, pottery is an inexpensive medium that is impervious to both microbes and pests, allowing for the storage of sufficient food, and even food in excess. A surplus of food frees members of the community for diversification and specialization of trades, leading to more productivity and efficiency.
But pottery does more than store food: it also extends the life of food. First, firing means that the interior of a clay bottle is sterile, almost the only sterile artifacts the ancients produced or encountered. That aspect gives us the warning about storing wine in new bottles, because old bottles carried microbes that would ruin wine. Beyond that, pottery vessels provide an expensive way of cooking food over a fire, which not only extends the life of the food, but can even recover some spoiled foods: rancid meat and decaying vegetables can be rendered edible through cooking.
The ability to recover spoiled food had other effects that advanced civilization. Cooking spoiled meat preserves the nutritive value and kills microbes, but it does little for the unpleasant flavor. To deal with that, spices and herbs came into great demand. (Because food spoils faster in balmy climates, to this day rich spices – particularly peppers – are more liberally used in the cuisine of warmer countries.) The demand for these flavorings made it highly profitable to search the world for them. That culinary exploration eventually led to the European discovery of the Americas, Australia, Polynesia, and others.
Trade & Currency
Pottery also became the foundation for much early trade and commerce, as it allowed food to serve as a stable, storable, portable, and uniform medium of exchange. Pots of wine, olive oil, or wheat were some of the earliest standardized units of commerce, particularly around the Near East and the Mediterranean. The standard clay shipping vessel had two handles to make it easier to carry. Two handles meant it could be ‘carried on both sides’, for which the Greek named it using the words amphi (both) + phoreus (carry), giving us the modern word amphora.
The amphora, in turn, became the basis for ancient currency: a measure of copper, gold, or silver equivalent of a fluid-filled amphora (about 25 to 35 kg) became a unit of currency. The metal was weighed against the amphora on a τάλαντο, a talanton, giving the measure the name ‘talent’. In ancient Greece, one silver talent paid for about 9 man-years of work, so a man’s work was his talent.
Using the amphora and the talent as standardized units of trade led to other advances in commerce. A need arose for metal denominations smaller than a talent, and coins were invented; some of the first known coins were minted in the areas of Anatolia and Greece.
Although the Greeks transported their olive oil in amphorae, within the home oil was kept in a smaller flask, a lekythos (λήκυθος). A small version of the lekythos gave humanity ‘bottled light’, i.e., the oil lamp. Fire had been used by humans to extend the day’s activities for over a half-million years, and the campfire naturally led to the creation of torches and fireplaces. But the oil lamp generates a miniature fire, with a miniature illumination, which can supports handwork and mental activity. While the camp fire allows for the communal pageantry of dancing, singing, and story telling, the lamp can only provide light for only one or a few people, which encourages more intellectual activities such as talking, reading, writing, reflecting, and crafting of smaller items. This is why it is appropriate that the oil lamp is the symbol of education. However, the wealthy man’s expensive, but iconic, ‘Ali Baba’ brass lamp misses the historical importance: it was the humble potter’s lamp that allowed the working classes to extend their handiwork and intellectual activity, which accelerated human progress.
Pottery also provided civilization with greater consistency and predictability, as storage of food allowed the king and his subjects to survive drought, famine, and siege. For this reason, Joseph’s interpretation of Pharaoh’s dream would have been meaningless without pottery.
For that matter, without pottery there would have been no Pharaoh. The Latin word for excess is luxus. The Latin word for excess in abundance, however – or even excess in decadence – is the related word luxuria, ‘luxury’. Pottery allows for the storage of excess food that could be traded for the non-essential luxuries that identified Pharaoh, and all kings and nobles.
Producing all of that excess, fungible agriculture presented Egypt with additional problem. Every year, the Nile flooded Lower Egypt, and deposited rich silt for richer farming, and for the richest pharaohs. The annual floods, however, washed away most boundary markers, and so the Egyptians developed quick, efficient methods for determining each farmer’s boundaries, by ‘measuring the earth’, or as the Greeks called it, γεωμετρία, giving us ‘geo-metry’ .
The most efficient way to trade all of those excess ceramic vessels, of course, was by using yet larger vessels, i.e., ships. Navigation – from the Latin navis, ship – requires an understanding of astronomy and geometry, and eventually the production of maps, to find one’s way across the great aqueous and trackless wildernesses of the world.
Those larger sea-going vessels brought back more than traded merchandise, however. They also brought back exotic technology, and surprising ideas. There is much scholarly attention given as to why European culture came to dominate the world. Jared Diamond won a Pulitzer for his attempt to explain Western ascendancy with his book, Guns, Germs, and Steel. It is a fascinating read, but a much simpler explanation was given by Fareed Zakaria: coastline. European coastlines are much more convoluted than those of the other continents. More coastline, more fishing; more fishing, more boats; more boats, more shipping; more shipping, more international commerce and more intercultural contact.
The importance of this is illustrated by the great Mediterranean navigators of antiquity. They needed standard rules and (again) standard measures, and they gave us the foundations of admiralty law. They also disseminated the alphabet and writing, invented by the legendary Cadmus. (Actually, the Phoenicians almost definitely got the concept from trading with the India… which again, proves the importance of trade rather than revelation.)
So shipping and trade means more ideas and more technological advances.
Writing & Mathematics
Excess production and extensive trade created a need to track inventories. That need produced written numbers, mathematics, verbal descriptions, and a professional caste of clerks/clerics to keep accurate records. Naturally, the earliest surviving records those clerics maintained were engraved in clay. Clay provides yet another unusual advantage here: temporary files were simply dried, but more permanent records were fired to the enduring hardness of pottery.
The importance of clerks in the ancient world is evidenced by the few records which remain of Persepolis, a city which Alexander razed in 330BCE. We have no record of the population of the city, but the Fortification Tablets – pottery records, of course – note that 1,348 people worked in the treasury alone.
Pottery also shows up in a rather bizarre and oblique way: I suspect it was critical to the success of early democracy, particularly in Athens and some other ancient Greek city-states.
Athens had a fascinating custom for dealing with people who were becoming to powerful and endangering democratic rule. Annually, citizens could vote anonymously for those they wanted removed from the city. If someone were removed, there were very specific rules both isolating, and protecting them: punished citizens were only removed for 10 years, and while they had to stay out, they could not stay too far out. With that, their property and their families were protected by law.
The voting for this removal was done on pottery sherds,1)‘Shards’ are pieces of glass, ‘sherds’ are pieces of pottery, or as the Greeks called them, ostraka (ὄστρακα). Citizens would write down on a sherd the name of someone they wanted removed, without giving any reason. If anyone received too many votes on the ostraka, he was removed.
That is, he was ostracized.
There is much research on the topic of ancient ostracism,2)I direct interested readers to Sara Forsdyke’s Exile, Ostracism, and Democracy: The Politics of Expulsion in Ancient Greece. 2005, Princeton University Press. but there is one observation that I have not seen: ostracism may help explain the genius of ancient Athens. If, as I argue, kings and other nobility suppressed new ideas and progress, then when the powerful are restrained, genius spontaneously emerges. We can imagine some rich or otherwise powerful man in ancient Athens observing his name beginning to frequently appear on pottery sherds in ancient Athens. The canny businesser or politician would reconsider his public activities, and back off from abusive or suppressive activities.
And if he weren’t smart enough to take the hint, he was removed. Which could very well explain why Athens flourished.
So it is quite possible that pottery was also indirectly responsible, not just for the success of ancient Athens, but because of Athens’ pivotal role, for all of western civilization.
Ballistics, Physics, Engineering
Stored food and wealth attracts pests and predators larger and more dangerous than rats: thieves, marauders, and armies constantly invade in pursuit of wealth. So as excesses accumulated, protection stronger than pottery was required. Farmers and merchants built stronger homes, then village collectives, and finally walled cities with a caste of professional soldiers. The words ‘citadel,’ ‘city,’ and ‘citizen’ are all related; in effect, a city wall is simply a much larger vessel which protects the smaller vessels within.
Attacking and defending cities became an arms race. Among the technologies imported to Europe was gunpowder, which created the need for greater accuracy in lobbing a cannonball. That smaller exercise in itself became a major contribution: many years later, Newton would use the ever-lengthening trajectory of a cannonball to explain celestial orbit. And even before Newton, more accurate aiming called on the clerical disciplines of mathematics, geometry, and celestial navigation. All of this led to physics, and the first scientific discoveries of the Renaissance.
The concentrated humanity within the citadel created additional needs, for harbors, canals, roads, fresh water, and waste disposal. These problems, and the need for fortifications, requires engineers and architects (who were often the same thing).
Thousands of years after the invention of pottery, a pottery derivative and substitute emerged: glass. Initially glass was an extravagant luxury – the stained glass windows of a Medieval cathedral could cost more than the stonework which supported them – but with time glass became an economical, mass-produced item. During the Napoleonic Wars, the Emperor needed a way to keep his troops supplied with food, and offered prizes for useful inventions. A French brewer, Nicolas Appert, found that meat, fruits and vegetables – which spoiled more quickly than grain, oil and wine – could be funneled into champagne bottles, corked, and heated to high temperature and pressure, and this process prevented spoiling. To remove the contents, Napoléon’s soldiers took a sword to the neck of the bottle. This was the origin of modern canning, which further extended the shelf-life of food, and allowed for yet more economical and efficient sustenance for the masses.
Pottery also gave humanity the inspirations for mass production. Long before Adam Smith and Eli Whitney, potters were throwing vessels of uniform size, and molding and stamping out standardized ceramic products. These concepts would lay out the concepts for minting those early coins, and from there, to other types of mass production.
This again, is true of writing and communication. Centuries before Johannes Gutenberg, the Chinese were making ceramic movable type, another pottery product; and long before either of those, there was the enigmatic Phaistos disc. The disc is a clay document printed with typed characters, which, if authentic, was made thousands of years before the movable type of either the Chinese or Gutenberg. It is also likely that the type pieces for the Phaistos disc were also fashioned from ceramics.
Mass productions was key for other critical inventions related to pottery. There are bricks for fireplaces, easier to work than stone, making warmth possible for more people in the winter months, and allowing civilization to expand into the colder parts of the world. Those bricks also allowed for high-temperature furnaces to work metal, including precious metals, which was essential for minting early coins. Pottery also gave us some of our earliest sculptured art; tiles for floor and roofs; bricks for walls; inexpensive plates, cups, and serving bowls; small pieces of furniture; and even the small ‘counters’ for the early abacus and other accounting tools, which in turn became the playing pieces for the first board games.
Pottery is not done, and the contributions continue today. Some of the most exciting discoveries in materials science involve pottery variants. Research into hi-tech ceramics has produced superconductors, super-sharp knives, bio-implants, and other high-tech materials.
None of this would have happened with some humble clay pot, first fashioned by some clever ancestor in the earliest stirrings of civilization.
Read more about how progress is created by middle class innovators, not powerful leaders.
Andokides amphora, courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Shipping amphorae courtesy of WikiMedia.org.
Footnotes [ + ]
|1.||↑||‘Shards’ are pieces of glass, ‘sherds’ are pieces of pottery|
|2.||↑||I direct interested readers to Sara Forsdyke’s Exile, Ostracism, and Democracy: The Politics of Expulsion in Ancient Greece. 2005, Princeton University Press.|